Imam Ali (as) was forced from his house with the rope around the neck

This is a brief response to the recent conversation we had on the whatsapp group with our Shia brothers and sisters on a specific historical account that ignited a debate within the group that did not end up conclusively.

 The topic was, whether Imam Ali (as) was forcibly taken from his house with a rope around his neck to give allegiance to Abu Bakr (la) or not. Our beloved brother, Hashim Rizvi disagreed and said this event never occurred while many brothers including myself was certain that this event occurred, mainly because there is a letter by Imam Ali (as) written to Muawiya (la) that is recorded in Nahjul Balagha, as this point was already discussed, I will skip the discussion on the letter in Nahjul Balagha but if someone is interested in knowing then I can provide the details of that letter and the discussion around it.

The reference from Nahjul Balagha was outright rejected. So, I have tried during the debate to gather reference from an English book that details out the event when Umar (la), Khalid ibn Walid (la), Qunfuz (la) and others approached the door of Lady Fatima (sa) on the orders of Abu Bakr (la), and then they forced Imam Ali (as) out of the house with a rope.

The references of the original books of Ahadith were mentioned in the footnotes of the English book that was handy to me at that time with the name (of the books), volume number and page number. When I provided these references to Brother Hashim he responded with his findings a day later and said that he was not able to find the reference implying that it was a fabrication.

Below are the references from the original books of Ahadith in Arabic with English translation from the same books that Br Hashim was not able to find. I recommend you to please save these references in case if you come across such disagreement in future, because even unknowingly belittling the oppression faced by Ahlul Bayt (as) is oppression itself. Thanks for reading.

 

JazakAllah!

First reference

Book title: Bihar al-Anwar( Tibb( a) Bayrout)

Author: Majlisi, Mohammad Baqer b. Mohammad Taqi

Date of Author's death: 1698

Researcher / Corrector: a group of writers

Subject: Tradition Collections

Language: Arabic

No. of Volumes: 111

Publisher: Dar Ihya' al-Turath al-Arabi

Place of Publication: Beirut

Date of Publication: 1982

Impression: 2 nd

 

 

بحار الأنوار)ط – بيروت(، ج‏28، ص: 270

 

They went after Ali (AS) and encircled him (as hostage), some took out their swords, they placed a rope on his neck and separated him from Fatima (as) from the door of her home.  He hit Fatima and the cursed one struck her with a whip, and she died later from his struck. Then they took Ali to Abu Bakr and Umar was there holding his sword over his head, Khalid ibn al-Walid and Abu U’baydah ibn al Jarah, and Salem (slave of Abi Hudhayfa), Muadh ibn Jabal and al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba, Usayd ibn Khodayr, Basheer ibn Sa’d and the rest of the people around Abu Bakr holding their weapons. He narrates that Sayyida Fatima turned to Salman and said to him, “Did they really enter my home without my permission?” She called out “Oh my father! Oh Rasulullah, Abu Bakr and Umar acted worst after you when you were just buried in your grave.  She saw Abu Bakr and those around him weeping except Umar, Khalid ibn al Walid, Mughira ibn Shu’bah. Umar was saying, ‘We are not women and we don’t take their words.’ So they brought Ali to Abu Bakr while saying, By Allah if I have my hands on my sword,  you will know that you will never reach him. By Allah, I don’t blame myself in doing Jihad.  If I had 40 men I would’ve attacked them, may the cure of God be upon those who did not give me their pledge of allegiance and they let me down.’ When Abu Bakr saw him, he called out, ‘Let him go.’ So Ali said, “Oh Abu Bakr, how quickly did not turn your back on Rasulullah (SA)! By what right did you call the people to give their pledge of allegiance to you?! Did you not give your oath of allegiance to me just recently by the order of Rasulullah ? He hit Fatima with a whip and Umar addressed him, ‘If Fatima tries to defend her husband, then strike her and whip her! So he did so and attacked her home and broke her rib. He pushed her and caused her miscarriage.

وَ ثَارَ عَلِيٌّ ع إِلَى سَيْفِهِ فَسَبَقُوهُ إِلَيْهِ وَ كَاثَرُوهُ فَتَنَاوَلَ بَعْضَ سُيُوفِهِمْ فَكَاثَرُوهُ فَأَلْقَوْا فِي عُنُقِهِ حَبْلًا وَ حَالَتْ بَيْنَهُمْ وَ بَيْنَهُ فَاطِمَةُ ع عِنْدَ بَابِ الْبَيْتِ فَضَرَبَهَا قُنْفُذٌ الْمَلْعُونُ بِالسَّوْطِ فَمَاتَتْ حِينَ مَاتَتْ  مِنْ ضَرْبَتِهِ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ انْطَلَقُوا بِعَلِيٍّ ع يُتَلُ‏ «1» حَتَّى انْتُهِيَ بِهِ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَ عُمَرُ قَائِمٌ بِالسَّيْفِ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ وَ خَالِدُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ وَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ وَ سَالِمٌ مَوْلَى أَبِي حُذَيْفَةَ وَ مُعَاذُ بْنُ جَبَلٍ وَ الْمُغِيرَةُ بْنُ شُعْبَةَ وَ أُسَيْدُ بْنُ حُضَيْرٍ وَ بَشِيرُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ وَ سَائِرُ النَّاسِ حَوْلَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ عَلَيْهِمُ السِّلَاحُ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِسَلْمَانَ أَ دَخَلُوا عَلَى فَاطِمَةَ بِغَيْرِ إِذْنٍ قَالَ إِي وَ اللَّهِ وَ مَا عَلَيْهَا خِمَارٌ فَنَادَتْ يَا أَبَتَاهْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَلَبِئْسَ مَا خَلَفَكَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَ عُمَرُ وَ عَيْنَاكَ لَمْ تَتَفَقَّأْ فِي قَبْرِكَ تُنَادِي بِأَعْلَى صَوْتِهَا فَلَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ أَبَا بَكْرٍ وَ مَنْ حَوْلَهُ يَبْكُونَ مَا فِيهِمْ إِلَّا بَاكٍ غَيْرَ عُمَرَ وَ خَالِدِ بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ وَ الْمُغِيرَةِ بْنِ شُعْبَةَ وَ عُمَرُ يَقُولُ إِنَّا لَسْنَا مِنَ النِّسَاءِ وَ رَأْيِهِنَّ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ قَالَ فَانْتَهَوْا بِعَلِيٍّ ع إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَ هُوَ يَقُولُ أَمَا وَ اللَّهِ لَوْ وَقَعَ سَيْفِي فِي يَدِي لَعَلِمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ لَمْ تَصِلُوا إِلَى هَذَا أَبَداً أَمَا وَ اللَّهِ مَا أَلُومُ نَفْسِي فِي جِهَادِكُمْ وَ لَوْ كُنْتُ أَسْتَمْسِكُ مِنْ أَرْبَعِينَ رَجُلًا لَفَرَّقْتُ جَمَاعَتَكُمْ وَ لَكِنْ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ أَقْوَاماً بَايَعُونِي ثُمَّ خَذَلُونِي وَ لَمَّا أَنْ بَصُرَ بِهِ أَبُو بَكْرٍ صَاحَ خَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُ فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ مَا أَسْرَعَ مَا تَوَثَّبْتُمْ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص بِأَيِّ حَقٍّ وَ بِأَيِّ مَنْزِلَةٍ دَعَوْتَ النَّاسَ إِلَى بَيْعَتِكَ أَ لَمْ تُبَايِعْنِي بِالْأَمْسِ بِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ وَ أَمْرِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَ قَدْ كَانَ قُنْفُذٌ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ ضَرَبَ فَاطِمَةَ ع بِالسَّوْطِ حِينَ حَالَتْ بَيْنَهُ وَ بَيْنَ زَوْجِهَا وَ أَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ عُمَرُ إِنْ حَالَتْ بَيْنَكَ وَ بَيْنَهُ فَاطِمَةُ فَاضْرِبْهَا فَأَلْجَأَهَا قُنْفُذٌ إِلَى عِضَادَةِ بَيْتِهَا وَ دَفَعَهَا فَكَسَرَ ضِلْعاً مِنْ جَنْبِهَا فَأَلْقَتْ جَنِينا

 

Second reference

Book title: `Awalim al-`Uloum wa al-Ma`ari wa al-`Ahwal min al-Ayat wa al-Akhbar wa al-Aqwal( Mustadrak Sayyidah

Author: Bahrani Isfahani, Abdollah b. Nourollah

Date of Author's death: 18 th Century

Researcher / Corrector: Muwahhid Abtahi Isfahani, Mohammad Baqir

Subject: Theology

Language: Arabic

No. of Volumes: 10

Publisher: Imam Mahdi Institute

Place of Publication: Qom

Date of Publication: 1992

Impression: 1 st

عوالم العلوم و المعارف والأحوال من الآيات و الأخبار و الأقوال (مستدرك سيدة النساء إلى الإمام الجواد، ج‏11-قسم-2-فاطمةس، ص: 557

 

When Imam Ali (AS) witnessed the betrayal of the companions, their lack of support and the consensus of the people in giving their oath to Abu Bakr, he stayed in his home. 

 

Umar said to Abu Bakr, “What prevents you from calling him and asking him to give his allegiance to you, when most everyone has given their bay’a to you except him and a few in number?

Abu Bakr was comparatively less aggressive and Umar had a more rough and tough personality.  Abu Bakr asked whom shall we send over to Ali?  Umar said, "Send Qonfoz to him (who was an aggressive and heartless man among the Tulaqaa (those who accepted Islam after the Conquest of Makkah). He sent him along with a group of men. He asked Imam Ali to entered and he refused to give him permission. So Qonfoz and his men went back to Umar and Abu Bakr at the Masjid, so Umar said: “If he didn’t give you permission, then enter and barge in his home without permission!”

So they went out back again, and Fatima (AS) said, “You better not enter my home without permission.” They went back and told Umar and Abu Bakr, “Fatima did not give us permission to me. Umar became angry and said, “we don’t care about the women!”

Then Umar ordered his men to carry world and to surround the house of Sayyida Fatima (AS) [where Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain were present]. Then Umar called out such that Ali (AS) would hear, “By Allah, you will come out and you will give your oath of allegiance to the Calipha of Rasulullah OR I will set your home fire!”  Umar returned back to Abu Bakr while he is afraid that Imam Ali (AS) comes after him with the sword as he knew very well how brave and courageous he is.  Then Umar said to Qonfoz: If he comes out then attack him, if he refuses to give the allegiance then set their on fire.

Then Qonfzoz and his men barged in the house of Sayyida (AS) without attaining permission, and Imam Ali (AS) went for his sword but they rushed before he can do so and they arrested him and cuffed him and they place a black rope on his neck.

 

ثمّ أتاهم من الليلة الثانية فناشدهم اللّه فقالوا: نصبحك بكرة، فما منهم أحد و فى غيرنا، ثمّ الليلة الثالثة فما و فى أحد غيرنا؛

فلمّا رأى عليّ عليه السّلام غدرهم و قلّة وفائهم لزم بيته ...

و كان عليّ بن أبي طالب عليه السّلام لمّا رأى خذلان الناس له، و تركهم نصرته، و اجتماع كلمة الناس مع أبي بكر، و طاعتهم له، و تعظيمهم له، جلس في بيته؛

فقال عمر لأبي بكر: ما يمنعك أن تبعث إليه فيبايع، فإنّه لم يبق أحد إلّا و قد بايع، غيره و غير هؤلاء الأربعة معه؛

و كان أبو بكر أرقّ الرجلين، و أرفقهما، و أدهاهما، و أبعدهما غورا؛

و الآخر أفظّهما و أغلظهما، و أخشنهما، و أجفاهما، فقال: من نرسل إليه؟

فقال عمر: أرسل إليه قنفذا- و كان رجلا فظّا غليظا جافيا من الطلقاء، أحد بني تيم- فأرسله و أرسل معه أعوانا، فانطلق فاستأذن، فأبى عليّ عليه السّلام أن يأذن له.

فرجع أصحاب قنفذ إلى أبي بكر و عمر، و هما في المسجد و الناس حولهما فقالوا: لم يأذن لنا، فقال عمر: هو إن أذن لكم و إلّا فادخلوا عليه بغير إذنه.

 

فانطلقوا، فاستأذنوا، فقالت فاطمة عليها السّلام: احرّج عليكم أن تدخلوا بيتي بغير إذن؛ فرجعوا، فثبت قنفذ، فقالوا: إنّ فاطمة قالت: كذا و كذا.

فحرّجتنا أن ندخل عليها البيت بغير إذن منها، فغضب عمر، و قال: ما لنا و للنساء؛

 

 

 

Third reference

 

Book title: Kitab Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilali

Author: Hilali, Sulaym b. Qays

Date of Author's death: 695

Researcher / Corrector: Ansari Zanjani Khoini, Mohammad

Subject: History

Language: Arabic

No. of Volumes: 1

Publisher: al-Hadi

Place of Publication: Qom

Date of Publication: 1984

Impression: 1 st

 

كتاب سليم بن قيس الهلالي، ج‏2، ص: 586

 

mam Ali (AS) held Umar the wrestled him down and was about to kill him, but he remembered the words of Rasulullah (SA) and his will to him. So he said, ‘by the prophethood of Muhammad, if it were not for the instructions which Prophet (SA) gave to me, I wouldn’t have let you enter my home.  Umar called for help and the people came forward till then entered the home of Fatima (AS). Imam Ali (AS) went for his sword, and so Umar returned back as he feared that Ali would come out with his sword as he knew well his bravery and strength.  Abu Bakr then said to Qunfoz (la): ‘return back there and make sure Ali doesn’t leave, if he does then attack the house. If he resists then set the house on fire!” The cursed Qonfoz went ahead with his companions without permission and barged into the house. Ali went for his sword but they beat him as they were many in number and they pull their swords and surrounded him, and restrained him.  They place a rope on his neck and Fatima (as) tried to prevent them from harming Ali (AS). So Qunfoz struck her with a whip and as a result of her wounds she died shortly after.  She suffered broken ribs due to their aggression on her.

 

فَوَثَبَ عَلِيٌّ ع فَأَخَذَ بِتَلَابِيبِهِ ثُمَّ نَتَرَهُ‏[1] فَصَرَعَهُ وَ وَجَأَ أَنْفَهُ وَ رَقَبَتَهُ وَ هَمَّ بِقَتْلِهِ فَذَكَرَ قَوْلَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص

وَ مَا أَوْصَاهُ بِهِ فَقَالَ وَ الَّذِي كَرَّمَ مُحَمَّداً بِالنُّبُوَّةِ يَا ابْنَ صُهَاكَ‏ لَوْ لا كِتابٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ سَبَقَ‏ وَ عَهْدٌ عَهِدَهُ إِلَيَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ص لَعَلِمْتَ أَنَّكَ لَا تَدْخُلُ بَيْتِي فَأَرْسَلَ عُمَرُ يَسْتَغِيثُ فَأَقْبَلَ النَّاسُ حَتَّى دَخَلُوا الدَّارَ وَ ثَارَ عَلِيٌّ ع إِلَى سَيْفِهِ فَرَجَعَ قُنْفُذٌ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَ هُوَ يَتَخَوَّفُ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ عَلِيٌّ ع [إِلَيْهِ‏][2] بِسَيْفِهِ لِمَا قَدْ عَرَفَ مِنْ بَأْسِهِ وَ شِدَّتِهِ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ لِقُنْفُذٍ ارْجِعْ فَإِنْ خَرَجَ وَ إِلَّا فَاقْتَحِمْ‏[3] عَلَيْهِ بَيْتَهُ فَإِنِ امْتَنَعَ فَأَضْرِمْ عَلَيْهِمْ بَيْتَهُمُ النَّارَ فَانْطَلَقَ قُنْفُذٌ الْمَلْعُونُ فَاقْتَحَمَ هُوَ وَ أَصْحَابُهُ بِغَيْرِ إِذْنٍ وَ ثَارَ عَلِيٌّ ع إِلَى سَيْفِهِ فَسَبَقُوهُ إِلَيْهِ [وَ كَاثَرُوهُ‏][4] وَ هُمْ كَثِيرُونَ فَتَنَاوَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ سُيُوفَهُمْ فَكَاثَرُوهُ [وَ ضَبَطُوهُ‏][5] فَأَلْقَوْا فِي عُنُقِهِ حَبْلًا وَ حَالَتْ بَيْنَهُمْ وَ بَيْنَهُ فَاطِمَةُ ع عِنْدَ بَابِ الْبَيْتِ فَضَرَبَهَا قُنْفُذٌ الْمَلْعُونُ بِالسَّوْطِ[6] فَمَاتَتْ حِينَ مَاتَتْ وَ إِنَّ فِي عَضُدِهَا كَمِثْلِ الدُّمْلُجِ مِنْ ضَرْبَتِهِ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ [وَ لَعَنَ مَنْ بَعَثَ بِهِ‏]

 

 

 

[1] ( 59) أي جذبه بشدة.

[2] ( 60) الزيادة من« ب».

[3] ( 61)« ب»: فاهجم.

[4] ( 62) الزيادة من« الف».

[5] ( 63) الزيادة من« ب» خ ل. و في الاحتجاج: فضبطوه و ألقوا في عنقه حبلا أسود!!

[6] ( 64)« ب»: بسوط كان معه. و في الاحتجاج: بالسوط على عضدها فبقى أثره في عضدها من ذلك مثل الدملوج من ضرب قنفذ إيّاها فأرسل أبو بكر إلى قنفذ:« اضربها»!! فألجأها إلى عضادة باب بيتها، فدفعها فكسر ضلعا من جنبها و ألقت جنينا من بطنها فلم تزل صاحبة فراش حتّى ماتت من ذلك شهيدة.

First reference